Bible Ignorance

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Something that has always driven me nuts is the things that Christians attribute to the Bible that aren't even part of it - or are misquotes of verses used to support some bias or another on the part of the speaker, rather than reflecting what the Bible actually said. A good example is the placement of Satan in the Garden of Eden as the serpent, when the Satan concept didn't even exist at the time of Genesis. But wait, there's more...lots more :

eden.jpg

Actually, that's not in the Bible

By John Blake

NFL legend Mike Ditka was giving a news conference one day after being fired as the coach of the Chicago Bears when he decided to quote the Bible.

"Scripture tells you that all things shall pass," a choked-up Ditka said after leading his team to only five wins during the previous season. "This, too, shall pass."

Ditka fumbled his biblical citation, though. The phrase "This, too, shall pass" doesn't appear in the Bible. Ditka was quoting a phantom scripture that sounds like it belongs in the Bible, but look closer and it's not there.

Ditka's biblical blunder is as common as preachers delivering long-winded public prayers. The Bible may be the most revered book in America, but it's also one of the most misquoted. Politicians, motivational speakers, coaches - all types of people - quote passages that actually have no place in the Bible, religious scholars say.

These phantom passages include:

"God helps those who help themselves."

"Spare the rod, spoil the child."

And there is this often-cited paraphrase: Satan tempted Eve to eat the forbidden apple in the Garden of Eden.

None of those passages appear in the Bible, and one is actually anti-biblical, scholars say.

But people rarely challenge them because biblical ignorance is so pervasive that it even reaches groups of people who should know better, says Steve Bouma-Prediger, a religion professor at Hope College in Holland, Michigan.

"In my college religion classes, I sometimes quote 2 Hesitations 4:3 ('There are no internal combustion engines in heaven')," Bouma-Prediger says. "I wait to see if anyone realizes that there is no such book in the Bible and therefore no such verse.

"Only a few catch on."

Few catch on because they don't want to - people prefer knowing biblical passages that reinforce their pre-existing beliefs, a Bible professor says.

"Most people who profess a deep love of the Bible have never actually read the book," says Rabbi Rami Shapiro, who once had to persuade a student in his Bible class at Middle Tennessee State University that the saying "this dog won't hunt" doesn't appear in the Book of Proverbs.



"They have memorized parts of texts that they can string together to prove the biblical basis for whatever it is they believe in," he says, "but they ignore the vast majority of the text."

Phantom biblical passages work in mysterious ways

Ignorance isn't the only cause for phantom Bible verses. Confusion is another.

Some of the most popular faux verses are pithy paraphrases of biblical concepts or bits of folk wisdom.

Consider these two:

"God works in mysterious ways."

"Cleanliness is next to Godliness."

Both sound as if they are taken from the Bible, but they're not. The first is a paraphrase of a 19th century hymn by the English poet William Cowper ("God moves in a mysterious way, His wonders to perform).

The "cleanliness" passage was coined by John Wesley, the 18th century evangelist who founded Methodism, says Thomas Kidd, a history professor at Baylor University in Texas.

"No matter if John Wesley or someone else came up with a wise saying - if it sounds proverbish, people figure it must come from the Bible," Kidd says.

Our fondness for the short and tweet-worthy may also explain our fondness for phantom biblical phrases. The pseudo-verses function like theological tweets: They're pithy summarizations of biblical concepts.

"Spare the rod, spoil the child" falls into that category. It's a popular verse - and painful for many kids. Could some enterprising kid avoid the rod by pointing out to his mother that it's not in the Bible?

It's doubtful. Her possible retort: The popular saying is a distillation of Proverbs 13:24: "The one who withholds [or spares] the rod is one who hates his son."

Another saying that sounds Bible-worthy: "Pride goes before a fall." But its approximation, Proverbs 16:18, is actually written: "Pride goeth before destruction, and an haughty spirit before a fall."

There are some phantom biblical verses for which no excuse can be offered. The speaker goofed.

That's what Bruce Wells, a theology professor, thinks happened to Ditka, the former NFL coach, when he strayed from the gridiron to biblical commentary during his 1993 press conference in Chicago.

Wells watched Ditka's biblical blunder on local television when he lived in Chicago. After Ditka cited the mysterious passage, reporters scrambled unsuccessfully the next day to find the biblical source.

They should have consulted Wells, who is now director of the ancient studies program at Saint Joseph's University in Pennsylvania. Wells says Ditka's error probably came from a peculiar feature of the King James Bible.

"My hunch on the Ditka quote is that it comes from a quirk of the King James translation," Wells says. "Ancient Hebrew had a particular way of saying things like, 'and the next thing that happened was...' The King James translators of the Old Testament consistently rendered this as 'and it came to pass.' ''

When phantom Bible passages turn dangerous

People may get verses wrong, but they also mangle plenty of well-known biblical stories as well.

Two examples: The scripture never says a whale swallowed Jonah, the Old Testament prophet, nor did any New Testament passages say that three wise men visited baby Jesus, scholars say.

Those details may seem minor, but scholars say one popular phantom Bible story stands above the rest: The Genesis story about the fall of humanity.

Most people know the popular version - Satan in the guise of a serpent tempts Eve to pick the forbidden apple from the Tree of Life. It's been downhill ever since.

But the story in the book of Genesis never places Satan in the Garden of Eden.

"Genesis mentions nothing but a serpent," says Kevin Dunn, chair of the department of religion at Tufts University in Massachusetts.

"Not only does the text not mention Satan, the very idea of Satan as a devilish tempter postdates the composition of the Garden of Eden story by at least 500 years," Dunn says.

Getting biblical scriptures and stories wrong may not seem significant, but it can become dangerous, one scholar says.

Most people have heard this one: "God helps those that help themselves." It's another phantom scripture that appears nowhere in the Bible, but many people think it does. It's actually attributed to Benjamin Franklin, one of the nation's founding fathers.

The passage is popular in part because it is a reflection of cherished American values: individual liberty and self-reliance, says Sidnie White Crawford, a religious studies scholar at the University of Nebraska.

Yet that passage contradicts the biblical definition of goodness: defining one's worth by what one does for others, like the poor and the outcast, Crawford says.

Crawford cites a scripture from Leviticus that tells people that when they harvest the land, they should leave some "for the poor and the alien" (Leviticus 19:9-10), and another passage from Deuteronomy that declares that people should not be "tight-fisted toward your needy neighbor."

"We often infect the Bible with our own values and morals, not asking what the Bible's values and morals really are," Crawford says.

Where do these phantom passages come from?

It's easy to blame the spread of phantom biblical passages on pervasive biblical illiteracy. But the causes are varied and go back centuries.

Some of the guilty parties are anonymous, lost to history. They are artists and storytellers who over the years embellished biblical stories and passages with their own twists.

If, say, you were an anonymous artist painting the Garden of Eden during the Renaissance, why not portray the serpent as the devil to give some punch to your creation? And if you're a preacher telling a story about Jonah, doesn't it just sound better to say that Jonah was swallowed by a whale, not a "great fish"?

Others blame the spread of phantom Bible passages on King James, or more specifically the declining popularity of the King James translation of the Bible.

That translation, which marks 400 years of existence this year, had a near monopoly on the Bible market as recently as 50 years ago, says Douglas Jacobsen, a professor of church history and theology at Messiah College in Pennsylvania.

"If you quoted the Bible and got it wrong then, people were more likely to notice because there was only one text," he says. "Today, so many different translations are used that almost no one can tell for sure if something supposedly from the Bible is being quoted accurately or not."

Others blame the spread of phantom biblical verses on Martin Luther, the German monk who ignited the Protestant Reformation, the massive "protest" against the excesses of the Roman Catholic Church that led to the formation of Protestant church denominations.

"It is a great Protestant tradition for anyone - milkmaid, cobbler, or innkeeper - to be able to pick up the Bible and read for herself. No need for a highly trained scholar or cleric to walk a lay person through the text," says Craig Hazen, director of the Christian Apologetics program at Biola University in Southern California.

But often the milkmaid, the cobbler - and the NFL coach - start creating biblical passages without the guidance of biblical experts, he says.

"You can see this manifest today in living room Bible studies across North America where lovely Christian people, with no training whatsoever, drink decaf, eat brownies and ask each other, 'What does this text mean to you?''' Hazen says.

"Not only do they get the interpretation wrong, but very often end up quoting verses that really aren't there."

8 Comments

"Hell" is also not mentioned in the bible. I believe that was a Catholic invention.

There is also distortion by omission.

For instance, I am perplexed by how Jews emphasize the reading of the Torah (the first 5 books of the Old Testament) and ignore the rest. The real danger is when Israelis justify their occupation and settlements by claiming that they are the chosen and that Israel was given to them by God. Yet they ignore the parts that describe the diaspora, where God casts them out of Israel, not to return "until the Messiah comes and calls them back" (paraphrase). I think the scripture is in the book of Amos, but I'd have to look that up.

As far as I know, the Messiah has not come.

As far as I am concerned it's really weird that European peoples are taking stock in the literature of an ancient desert tribe.

There is wisdom in the Bible, and I believe in a lot of it, though certainly not the interpretations of those who have their own agendas. Some people as far as China believe it too. I also believe in Buddhism, and some mysticism of the ancients. So I don't know that the geographic origins really matter.

I just can't understand why no one ever challenges those who lay claim to land where other people have lived for thousands of years, namely Palestine, using the Bible as their justification, when the Bible itself refutes those claims.

Aren't there any Biblical scholars or Rabbis or theologians who read the old texts?

To your last question...yes there are. One of the most irritating aspects of modern Christian adherents to me is both their basic Bible illiteracy in the sense of being stuck on only the most superficial meanings of the verses and the complete lack of grasp for the Mysteries of Christianity. Most Christians aren't even aware of the gnostic aspects of their religion or about the history of the battle between the Gnostics and the members of the Nicene Council or for that matter even what the Nicene Council was.

So though any spiritual text of any religion may contain wisdom representing the apex of whichever culture produced it, its acolytes often fall short of being worthy representatives of that wisdom because they do not actually make serious study of its principles and are frequently hypocrites by way of their day to day actions. Hence, we are confronted today with the likes of evangelical Christians who are full of fervor without reason, or as Yeats notes in his "Second Coming":

The best lack all conviction, while the worst
Are full of passionate intensity.

I like the way Joni Mitchell paraphrased those lines in her "Slouching toward Bethlehem to be Born":

The best lack conviction
Given some time to think
And the worst are full of passion
Without mercy

Ignorance is always dangerous and that is why I find modern Christians of that ilk a major thorn.

Wow cul, that's the most succinct explanation of where modern Christianity went wrong.

Last year I got into reading about Julian, the last Pagan Roman emperor, who lost the battle against Constantine's "Christianization" of the Empire. Perhaps you've read Gore Vidal's famous book, "Julian" which describes this struggle.

One can't help but wonder what the world would be like today had Julian prevailed against the Church, or had the Gnostics prevailed against Nicene Council.

Thank you for this very interesting exchange.

de nada ...and thanx for the heads-up about Gore's "Julian"...I love Gore and haven't read that one...yet.

If you like Gore you'll like "Julian."

To my question about why there aren't any Rabbi's challenging Zionist claims, apparantly there are some you do.

On May 4, 2009, a protest demonstration against AIPAC was held outside the convention center, where it was meeting in Washington, D.C. The mega-Israel Lobby convenes annually in this city. One of those speaking out at the anti-AIPAC rally was Orthodox Rabbi Yisroel Dovid Weiss. He is associated with "Orthodox Jews United Against Zionism," and is a member of "Neturei Karta International." See: http://www.nkusa.org/ Rabbi Weiss was sharply critical in his remarks of the ideology of Zionism.

Watch the youtube viceo:

http://youtu.be/P_ZiVRedU-4

Thanks for the links...I'll comment after watching them.

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This page contains a single entry by cul published on June 5, 2011 2:45 AM.

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